Modern German Standard GermanGerman dialectology 18th — 21st centuries In addition, the discipline examines German under various aspects: It compares the various manifestations such as social groupings slang, written texts, etc. German literature studies[ edit ] The study German literature is divided into two parts:
Europe, to Drama and theater arts in the German territories saw a proliferation of forms derived from the reception of various literary traditions.
Bymodern German drama came into its own, but the transition leading to that result was complex. Those forms and traditions that were discarded along the way constitute the story of early modern drama in Germany. The fourteenth and fifteenth centuries saw dramatic forms linked to liturgical uses and ecclesiastical traditions.
Oral rituals of the Latin mass were linked to the celebratory cycle of the Christian calendar, to the Christmas and Easter messages of birth, death, and salvation. Dramatic enactment served as an entertaining vehicle reinforcing wondrous truths.
The recovery in of plays in Latin modeled after those of the Roman playwright Terence c. Philipp Melanchthon's edition of Terence provided an authoritative textual base for both dramatic form and literary language and served as a catalyst for translation of the plays from Latin into Germanthereby assuring the spread of classical models.
Whether written in German or Latin, Schuldrama was a constant; theater in Germany remained nonprofessional until the eighteenth century. Martin Luther — was leery both of the diversions of medieval pageantry and the pre-Christian worldliness of Greek and Roman plays.
His mentor Melanchthon, however, convinced him German and english linguistics the efficacy of placing drama in the service of the Reformation. While some playwrights pilloried the Roman Catholic ChurchLuther encouraged the production of plays based on biblical sources.
Prodigal Son plays, for example, defined the exemplary Christian life grounded in the precepts of faith-alone theology, while Judith dramas portrayed heroic piety confronting blasphemous tyranny, Judith versus Holofernes representing the Lutheran versus the Roman Church. Lutheran schoolmasters and pastors cranked out German-language plays, spreading a Protestant message to cultural centers notably Strasbourg and to most corners of the empire and Switzerland.
The Catholic religious orders, but especially Jesuit playwrights such as Jakob Bidermann and Jakob Masen, countered, producing Neo-Latin works, the theatricality of which influenced playwrights well into the seventeenth century. The most prolific playwright of the sixteenth century was Hans Sachs — Often parodied because of his unrelenting German-language doggerel, the Nuremberg author absorbed classical and medieval literary and historical sources, authoring tragedies and comedies as well as 80 Fastnachtspiele.
Not only did he transmit a version of Terence's Eunuch or the medieval romance Tristan und Isolde to the German imagination, but his Fastnachtspiele toned down the blatant profanity of his predecessors, deploying the Shrovetide message of excess just prior to Lent firmly in the service of Reformation instruction.
During the late sixteenth century, German playwrights also derived inspiration from the Italian commedia dell'arte and from traveling troupes of English professional players who toured cities and princely courts throughout the empire.
The brand of theater was decidedly histrionic, focused more on slapstick action than on the word. Nicodemus Frischlin's Caminarius in the court-centered play Julius Redivivus was a lascivious commedia-type. Duke Heinrich Julius von Braunschweig's braggart soldier in the courtly piece named for him, Vincentius Ladislauswas as indebted to Shakespearean and Italian models as to classical sources.
Each drama documents the derivative nature of German drama as well as the significance of princely court festival culture in the era; indeed, the first theater building in the empire was constructed by a Hessian prince for his court in Kassel — Comedy, as Cicero had written, was a mirror of laughable life, while tragedy ended sadly.
|English to French, Italian, German & Spanish Dictionary - initiativeblog.com||Depending on the dialect or region, one form may be preferred over the other.|
|linguistics : German » English | PONS||You have the opportunity to select wild modules in this stage Stage 2 Credits LL - Language Variation and Change This module will explore the reasons for the initial exclusion of extralinguistic i. It will then examine the advances brought about by network studies e.|
|Study and Research in Germany||Thus well over half of the Danish lexical mass came in the 13th cent. The same is true for Swedish, while the Norwegian in its most used form is in fact Danish, albeit with a very different pronunciation.|
Such views were hardly complex or subtle, and with the variegated dramatic conventions competing for the German stage, what was lacking was a coherent theoretical base. The author was a culturally patriotic student of Italian Renaissance poetics who simply translated Julius Caesar Scaliger's — definitions verbatim into German.
Opitz's work became authoritative, spawning a host of learned theoretical publications. Playwrights after Opitz knew exactly what was expected of them and wrote accordingly. Andreas Gryphius — was honored as the consummate practitioner of literary art.
His five tragedies and two comedies, along with lesser-known dramas, established him as the exemplar of the era's sensibility.
The drama explored a sociopolitical issue especially pertinent to seventeenth-century European absolutism: Subsequent dramas by Gryphius addressed the tragic fate of figures from both the distant and the recent past, for example, that of the English King Charles I, who was beheaded in Yet research has shown that Gryphius could not have known Shakespeare's text directly, even as he dramatized the tragic comedy of errors derived from Ovid's Metamorphoses.
Instead, Gryphius explicitly satirized the ineptness of Hans Sachseven as he dissembled Opitz's rigid definition of comedy. The oft-performed tragicomedy argued for the admissibility of chaotic absurdity on the German stage. On the other hand, Horribilicribrifaxfeaturing two preposterous braggart soldiers, was more in line with Greek and Roman comedy, with commedia dell'arte traditions, and with the German conventions of the form.
As a result of the cessation of hostilities, the pair is down on its luck and now in pursuit of eligible ladies. The happy-end marriage, a comedic process of reintegration, dramatized pertinent issues after the conclusion of the Thirty Years' War — The six tragedies by Daniel Casper von Lohenstein This site contains a basic overview of the German language for English-speaking students.
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Studying German in combination with English Language and Linguistics enables you to learn another language and gain an understanding of how language itself works.
Collins German Dictionary Collins German online dictionary is the ultimate companion for German language learners, from beginner to advanced level. With over , translations, including all the latest vocabulary in both languages, you can find what you need wherever you are. A Brief History of the German Language Aaron D.
Alder Brigham Young University. The German language has always been important to me.
Since my father lived in Switzerland for nearly three years before I was born, I can always remember him using certain German phrases when he spoke to me. The Master’s degree programme in German and English Linguistics is based on a cooperation between the German and English departments at Leibniz Universität Hannover.
The bilingual concept and implementation of the degree programme is innovative. In English the terms Germanistics or Germanics are sometimes used (mostly by Germans), but the subject is more often referred to as German studies, German language and literature, or German philology.
Modern German studies is usually seen as a combination of two sub-disciplines: German linguistics and Germanophone literature studies.