How to write a case brief ratio

Eisenhardt 's methodological work.

How to write a case brief ratio

N for RPM, alpha for throttle angle. They have a fuel number in hexi-decimal values which correspond to fuel injection pulse duration. Expressed as a percentage of the maximum time available, this is then often referred to as "duty cycle". These break points are totally adjustable, and vary due to the maximum RPM of the engine and variance in fuel requirement.

They are generally always closer together at lower RPM, usually every from 1, upwards, and tend to space out above 6, RPM. Often though, you will get a couple of points rather close together such as the 4, and 4, on the shown mapnormally due to sharp changes in fuel requirement.

This is generally caused by wave or pulse tuning effects and their variance with RPM. With each RPM and throttle break point intersection giving a fuel number, there are individual fuel points on a map.

There is something very important to remember about these points. They are all totally independent of each other. This is the true beauty of digital control systems, totally free of the dependant relationship constraints that are intrinsic to mechanical or analogue electronic systems.

The value at one point has no influence at all over any other point, nor is there any constraint over the number that can be used, within the limits of zero and 17 milliseconds maximum for the Weber Marelli system, Bosch Motronic is 16 ms I think.

In practice, this means that you can make one point very lean, the point next to it very rich. If you know what you are doing, it is very easy to make a chip that gives good economy, rideability and performance. Because the fuel mixture is either correct, too lean or too rich.

This N-alpha method of fuel requirement calculation also introduces error, as it does not measure the air entering the engine directly, as most car systems do nowadays. However, car engines have much more stringent emissions standards than bikes currently, and need the extra accuracy.

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Additional errors are introduced through variances in injector flow rate, fuel pressure regulator settings, throttle position sensor setting, even voltage drops in wiring looms. Generally, this is the realm of the chip maker who just adds or subtracts fuel over the entire fuel map. Not exactly rocket science.

Which is a bit depressing, really. From the above map, for instance, if the engine is doing 4, RPM, with a throttle opening of 10 degrees, the injectors will open for 3.

The number is probably not 3. It is just rounded in this instance. For an RPM or throttle angle that is in between the given set points, the number is interpolated three-dimensional average using the surrounding points. Easy for a smart little computer to manage, and they are getting much smarter with each new model.

This is an offset map from the first map, and gives a fuel injection time variance from the front map. This is due to the variation between cylinders in the dynamic situation of a running engine. Variances in cylinder temperature especially on air cooled enginesairbox flow to each inlet, exhaust design, etc create a different fuel need for each cylinder.

In this case, the biggest variation is 0. This offset means these engines can be considered to have injector firing that is "sequential", a term used in car circles to define the style of injector firing.

Car engines are usually run with "batch" firing of injectors, meaning a 6 cylinder engine will have, say, 2 batches of injectors, with all 3 one injector per cylinder, total of 6 in each group opening at the same time. This is where the term sequential comes in.


More expensive to produce in terms of ECU and software, but ultimately better. The P7 ECU, used on theand very early first ? The key would be the "well mapped" not just Brad mapped bit in reality. Again, each point is totally independent of all others. Just to make cranking a little easier.

A running engine will rarely use these points, so you can manipulate areas like this as required to create a certain condition or result. These are known as "environmental" trims, and compensate for things such as a cold engine or very hot day or running at high altitude.

They also show up idiot bike journos, who make comments like "the system still needs a choke for cold starts", not realising the thing on the handlebars that used to be a choke lever is now just a fast idle lever.Product Description.

how to write a case brief ratio

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Do you have to write a case brief? We break down everything you need to know to write a case brief like a pro, including the structure and details.

how to write a case brief ratio

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How to Write a Case Brief for Law School | LexisNexis