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Bind rune and scribal abbreviation The origin of typographical ligatures comes from the invention of writing with a stylus on fibrous material like paper or clay. Businessmen especially who needed a way to speed up the process of written communication found that conjoining letters and abbreviating words for lay use was more convenient for record keeping and transaction than the bulky long forms.
The earliest known script, Sumerian cuneiformincludes many cases of character combinations that, over time, gradually evolve from ligatures into separately recognizable characters. Ligatures figure prominently in many historical manuscripts, notably the Brahmic abugidasor the bind rune of the Migration Period Germanic runic inscriptions.
Doubles Geminated consonants during the Roman Republic era were written as a sicilicus. However, in Nordic texts a particular type of ligature appeared for ll and tt, referred to as "broken l" and "broken t"  Medieval scribes who wrote in Latin increased their writing speed by combining characters and by introducing notational abbreviations.
Others conjoined letters for aesthetic purposes. For example, in blackletterletters with right-facing bowls b, o, and p and those with left-facing bowls c, e, o, d, g and q were written with the facing edges of the bowls superimposed.
In many script forms, characters such as h, m, and n had their vertical strokes superimposed. Scribes also used notational abbreviations to avoid having to write a whole character in one stroke.
Manuscripts in the fourteenth century employed hundreds of such abbreviations. Modifications to script bodies like these usually originate from legal, business and monastic sources, with the emphasis shifting from business to monastic sources by around the 9th and 10th centuries.
A widely-used Th ligature in a handwriting-style typeface In hand writinga ligature is made by joining two or more characters in atypical fashion by merging their parts or by writing one above or inside the other.
While in printing, a ligature is a group of characters that is typeset as a unit, and the characters do not have to be joined. For example, in some cases the fi ligature prints the letters f and i with a greater separation than when they are typeset as separate letters. When printing with movable type was invented around typefaces included many ligatures and additional letters, as they were based on handwriting.
Ligatures made printing with movable type easier because one block would replace frequent combinations of letters and also allowed more complex and interesting character designs which would otherwise collide with one another. Ligatures began to fall out of use due to their complexity in the 20th century.
Sans serif typefaces, increasingly used for body text, generally avoid ligatures, though notable exceptions include Gill Sans and Futura. Inexpensive phototypesetting machines in the s which did not require journeyman knowledge or training to operate also generally avoid them.
The trend against digraph use was further strengthened by the desktop publishing revolution starting around with the production of the Apple II. Early computer software in particular had no way to allow for ligature substitution the automatic use of ligatures where appropriatewhile most new digital typefaces did not include ligatures.
As most of the early PC development was designed for the English language which already treated ligatures as optional at best dependence on ligatures did not carry over to digital.Solutions to common HTML validation errors, including incorrect nesting of elements and use of the SCRIPT element.
By Dr Suzannah Biernoff Issue 2, Autumn Warning: This article contains disturbing images. You know very well that he has examined himself in a mirror.
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In similar lines, when I tried & for &, apparently it is not giving correct results. – akc Sep 23 '13 at The ampersand can be traced back to the 1st century A.D. and the Old Roman cursive, in which the letters E and T occasionally were written together to form a ligature (Evolution of the ampersand - figure 1).
In the later and more flowing New Roman Cursive, ligatures of all kinds were extremely common; figures 2 and 3 from the middle of 4th century are examples of how the et-ligature could look.
HTML and XHTML character escape codes and entity references including copyright, trademark and currency symbols.
Lead Maintainer: Philip Roberts An observable, extensible state object with derived watchable properties. Ampersand-state serves as a base object for ampersand-model but is useful any time you want to track complex state..
ampersand-model extends ampersand-state to include assumptions that you'd want if you're using models to model data from a REST API..
But by itself ampersand .