Investigating methods for preventing racial profiling in the field

Many would consider it ancient history.

Investigating methods for preventing racial profiling in the field

This report provides a detailed look at police technology. It is meant to help readers as they consider the evolution and future development of police technology and the role of the National Institute of Justice NIJ in fostering that development.

It was prepared with a diverse audience in mind, all Investigating methods for preventing racial profiling in the field whom have a stake in ensuring that the police are equipped to do their job safely and efficiently: The job is exacting. The police are asked to control crime, maintain order, and provide an intricate array of services, from responding to emergency calls to regulating the flow of traffic.

On occasion, they must perform remarkable feats of criminal investigation, quell rowdy crowds and violent offenders, and put their lives on the line.

Investigating methods for preventing racial profiling in the field

Much of the time, police resources are limited. It is estimated that the workload crime imposes on the police has increased fivefold since Their resources have not kept pace with their workload. The Police and Technology To do their job, police frequently have looked to technology for enhancing their effectiveness.

The advent of fingerprinting in the s and of crime laboratories in the s greatly augmented the police capacity to solve crimes. The introduction of the two-way radio and the widespread use of the automobile in the s multiplied police productivity in responding to incidents. But, as noted in this report, progress in technology for the police has often been slow and uneven.

A quotation from the President's Crime Commission in illustrates how the police at times have lagged behind other sectors in reaping the benefits of technology: The Crime Commission was established in the s in response to rapidly rising crime rates and urban disorders. The Commission advocated federal government funding for state and local criminal justice agencies to support their efforts.

It called for what soon became the system for fielding emergency calls and recommended that agencies acquire computers to automate their functions.

But even with the start-up help of hundreds of millions of dollars in early federal assistance, computerization came slowly. Only in recent years have many agencies found the use of information technologies significantly helpful.

Examples include fingerprinting databases, computerized crime mapping, and records management systems doing everything from inventorying property and cataloging evidence to calculating solvability factors. Police Technology and the National Institute of Justice Many police technologies are drawn and adapted from the commercial marketplace.

Cars, radios, computers, and firearms are examples. But this report notes that the police have vital needs for special technologies for which there is no easily available source. Examples are devices to use less-than-lethal force in controlling unruly persons, to stop fleeing vehicles, and to detect concealed weapons and contraband in nonintrusive ways.

Private sector technology developers and manufacturers are reluctant to meet many special technology needs of the police. The fragmentation of the American police market, which numbers more than 17, agencies, makes selling to the police a time-consuming and expensive proposition.

Liability issues are also a concern: Will the manufacturer be protected if its product is used in a way that injures officers or citizens? The job of fulfilling special technology needs for state and local law enforcement belongs to the National Institute of Justice NIJthe criminal justice research arm of the U.

NIJ's Office of Science and Technology fosters technology research and development when it otherwise will not occur.

It also develops voluntary product standards, compliance and testing processes, and it disseminates a wide range of information on criminal justice technology.

For the first 20 years after the federal government began supporting local criminal justice agencies, NIJ's role in technology was limited. Its most notable accomplishments were the development of soft body armor for the police and establishment and dissemination of performance standards for police equipment.

Beginning in the s, however, the Administration and Congress recognized increased needs for technology and began funding NIJ to meet them.

A current example is a five-year project to improve the quality and availability of DNA technology to local and state law enforcement. A second example is funding to detect concealed weapons and contraband. Often in cooperation with other federal agencies such as the Departments of Defense and Energy, NIJ sponsors scores of efforts to develop new technologies.

Observations for Policymakers The purpose of this report is to inform. However, in preparing it, observations were formed that may be useful to federal policymakers. One set of observations suggests ways to coordinate federal technology development efforts for avoiding fragmentation and duplication of effort and ensuring certain systems are compatible.

On the basis of its mission and partnerships with other federal agencies, NIJ seems well suited to play a coordinating role in these efforts. A second observation is that the coordination of technology development, as well as the emphasis on its importance, would be better served by the appointment of a science and technology adviser to the Attorney General and a senior law enforcement official to the Technology Policy Board of the White House Office of Science and Technology.

Here, again, it would appear that NIJ could provide excellent support in this endeavor. Other observations address ways of encouraging industry to manufacture and market technologies developed under NIJ's aegis; of strengthening compliance with product standards; and of encouraging the federal government to help police agencies acquire new technologies through such means as buying consortiums, low-interest loans, and distribution of surplus equipment.

A final observation addresses the issue of inadequate funding to support technology development for state and local police and of the necessity to provide a stable budget as a matter of highest national priority.Review of Psychopathy. William D. Tillier; Calgary Alberta; Update: Under construction.

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Investigating methods for preventing racial profiling in the field

"Airport security practitioners have several avenues to receive and use information and intelligence.". AET Internal Combustion Engine Theory and Servicing. This is a theory/laboratory course designed to introduce the student to basic heat engine types, their .

When litigation started in , the percentages of African American and Hispanic firefighters in New York had increased to just % and %, respectively. Investigating methods for preventing racial profiling in the field. Print Reference this. The problem is the use of racial profiling in the field of law enforcement.

Specifically, the problem is the disproportionate number of minorities that are targeted for investigatory stops . A study in racial profiling in the LAPD done in shows that blacks were frisked % more times than whites. It also shows that the arrest rate for blacks is 29% higher than whites, and this is even when the rate of contraband found on a suspect is actually lower for blacks and Hispanics than whites.

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