Read now Benefits Symptoms of stomach discomfort, such as gas, bloating, and diarrhea that occur after consuming dairy products, are typically attributed to lactose intolerance.
Side effects[ edit ] The manipulation of the gut microbiota is complex and may cause bacteria-host interactions. History[ edit ] Probiotics have received renewed attention in the 21st century from product manufacturers, research studies, and consumers.
The history of probiotics can be traced to the first use of cheese and fermented products, that were well known to the Greeks and Romans who recommended their consumption.
Proteolytic bacteria such as clostridiawhich are part of the normal gut microbiota, produce toxic substances including phenolsindolsand ammonia from the digestion of proteins. According to Metchnikoff, these compounds were responsible for what he called intestinal autointoxicationwhich would cause the physical changes associated with old age.
Metchnikoff had also observed that certain rural populations in Europe, for example in Bulgaria and the Russian steppes, who lived largely on milk fermented by lactic-acid bacteria were exceptionally long lived. Based on these observations, Metchnikoff proposed that consumption of fermented milk would "seed" the intestine with harmless lactic-acid bacteria and decrease the intestinal pH, and that this would suppress the growth of proteolytic bacteria.
Metchnikoff himself introduced in his diet sour milk fermented with the bacteria he called "Bulgarian Bacillus" and believed his health benefited.
Friends in Paris soon followed his example and physicians began prescribing the sour-milk diet for their patients. The isolated bacterium named Bacillus bifidus communis  was later renamed to the genus Bifidobacterium.
Tissier found that bifidobacteria are dominant in the gut microbiota of breast-fed babies and he observed clinical benefits from treating diarrhea in infants with bifidobacteria.
During an outbreak of shigellosis inGerman professor Alfred Nissle isolated a strain of Escherichia coli from the feces of a soldier who was not affected by the disease. They observed changes in composition of fecal microbiota, which they described as "transformation of the intestinal flora ".
In certain strains of L. In Roy Fuller suggested a definition of probiotics that has been widely used: The term "probiotic" originally referred to microorganisms that have effects on other microorganisms. The term was used again  to describe tissue extracts that stimulated microbial growth.
The term probiotics was taken up by Parker,  who defined the concept as, "Organisms and substances that have a beneficial effect on the host animal by contributing to its intestinal microbial balance. Fuller described probiotics as a "live microbial feed supplement which beneficially affects the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance.
In the following decades, intestinal lactic acid bacterial species with alleged health beneficial properties were introduced as probiotics, including Lactobacillus rhamnosusLactobacillus caseiand Lactobacillus johnsonii.
The term probiotic comes from the Latin pro, meaning 'supporting', and refers to a substance that is not digested but "promotes the growth of beneficial intestinal microorganisms". Research[ edit ] As food products or dietary supplementsprobiotics are under preliminary research to evaluate if they provide any effect on health.Jul 05, · Introduction.
Lactose is a disaccharide that is abundant in mammalian milk and essential for the nourishment of newborn infants. It is hydrolyzed by the intestinal brush-border enzyme, lactase, into absorbable sugars, namely glucose and galactose.
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Probiotics have been the subject of research to see whether the health claims made for them have any supporting evidence. Scientific demonstration of probiotic effects on health and disease first requires a definition of healthy microbiota as well as an understanding of the complex interactions between microbiota and host, which are not yet well-understood.
vi Dairy components milk fat and human health milk protein and health Lactose Dairy ingredients RAM RAO, Ph.D. With a doctorate in Neuroscience, Ram presently serves as a Research Associate Professor at the Buck Institute for Research on Aging.