Prepareing effective case analysis

Results Your Results section should clearly convey your findings. These are what you will base your commentary on in the Discussion section, so the reader needs to be certain of what you found. Present data in a summarised form Raw data Do not over-complicate the presentation and description of your results. Be clear and concise.

Prepareing effective case analysis

Many countries, for example, allow for the composition of the expenditure or revenue plans to be changed but not the global total; in others, particularly in a number of transition economies, new expenditure proposals--often poorly costed--can be put forward, approved by the parliament, and thus enter into the budget.

Although those preparing the budget can help improve parliamentary understanding through discussions, the budget must ultimately be negotiated by the executive with the legislature. The responsibility for preparing the budget usually lies with the ministry of finance with input from the line ministries and some smaller spending agencies.

This exercise is normally controlled by a central budget department located in the ministry of finance, or sometimes in a separate budget ministry. The character of central budget departments differs widely between countries, however.

Some are only responsible for preparing the current budget, excluding debt. Some budget departments are in charge of preparing the entire budget, although not Prepareing effective case analysis in implementation of the budget.

Others have a say on expenditure commitments, and some are also in charge of monitoring budget execution. It is therefore important to know the precise responsibilities of the budget department. It is particularly useful to know if the budget department is responsible for supplying partial or complete data on budget preparation, expenditure commitments, and full budget execution data.

In many developing countries, only partial data on budget preparation may be available in the budget department. It is important that all data on the current budget, the capital budget, and the debt service including data on secondary and tertiary tiers of government are consolidated to ensure that, in total, they are consistent with macro objectives.

In some countries, research departments of the central bank may carry out this task. What are the basic steps in budget preparation systems? In principle, the basic steps in a standard budget preparation system comprise the following: The first step in budget preparation should be the determination of a macroeconomic framework for the budget year and ideally at least the next two years.

The macroeconomic projections, prepared by a macroeconomic unit in the ministry of finance or elsewhere, should be agreed with the minister of finance. This allows the budget department within the ministry of finance to determine the global level of expenditure that can be afforded without adverse macroeconomic implications, given expected revenues and the level of deficit that can be safely financed.

In a few countries, there are fiscal rules in place that may limit total spending or recurrent spending e. The next step should be for the budget department to prepare a budget circular to give instructions to line ministries, with the indicative aggregate spending ceiling for each ministry, on how to prepare their estimates in a way that will be consistent with macro objectives.

This circular will include information on the economic assumptions to be adopted on wage levels, the exchange rate and price levels and preferably differentiated price levels for different economic categories of goods and services.

Step four is the submission of bids by line ministries to the budget department. Once received there needs to be an effective "challenge" capacity within the budget department to test the costing of existing and any new policy proposals.

The next step comprises the negotiations, usually at official and then bilateral or collective ministerial level, leading finally to agreement.

Finally, step six is Cabinet endorsement of the proposals for inclusion in the budget that will go to parliament. While the principles should be broadly familiar in most ministries of finance and would even be considered out of date in those industrial countries with the most advanced budgeting systemsactual practices may fall a long way short.

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For example, in too many countries the budget department does not prepare a macro framework, nor even a first outline of the budget, let alone indicative ceilings by line ministry, before sending out the budget circular. In such cases, the circular is an administrative mechanism that initiates the budget-making process, usually providing a timetable for budget submissions--that is, estimates of financial requirements by line item and by line ministry or spending agency--but not giving them much guidance in the preparation of their estimates or overall spending limits.

With this "bottom-up approach," line ministries are able to overstate their needs, exerting upward pressure on overall spending.

Early in the preparation stage, that is before the budget circular is issued, those advising on the preparation of the budget should ask: Is the budget based on an aggregate level of general or central government expenditure, in cash terms, that is consistent with the macro framework, and any fiscal rules in place?

Prepareing effective case analysis

Does the budget circular to the line ministries provide adequate guidance on preparing budget estimates? Does it include a guideline or limit for each line ministry on this total spending? Are there suitable reserves? Ideally, within the aggregate total there should be a planning reserve not allocated in guidelines given to each line ministryso the ministry of finance can assign extra resources later during budget negotiations for the most urgent priorities, without breaching the macroeconomic constraint.

Moreover, after all final line ministry allocations have been made, there should still be a contingency reserve within the aggregate that will be held and administered by the ministry of finance to meet genuine contingency spending during the budget year.

What are the typical weaknesses of budget preparation systems? There are often weaknesses in budget preparation systems: Eight common problem areas can be identified: The central government budget is not really unified. It is a dual-budget system with separate recurrent and capital or "development" budgets that may be based on inconsistent macroeconomic assumptions, budget classifications, or accounting rules.

Each budget may be compiled by a different ministry--for example, the ministry of finance for recurrent expenditures and a planning ministry for capital or "development" expenditures.Preparing a Report What is a report?

A report is the formal writing up of a project or a research investigation. Budget planning and preparation are (or should be) at the heart of good public expenditure management.

To be fully effective, public expenditure management systems require four forms of fiscal and financial discipline: What are the basic steps in budget preparation systems? Knowledge and analysis of previous year's projected outturn. At the core of any effective training program is correctly identifying what or who needs to be trained.

Poorly conducted needs analyses can lead to training solutions that train: The wrong competencies; The wrong people; and The wrong learning methods.

Before a training needs analysis can begin, the. An IEEE society dedicated to understanding and promoting effective communication in engineering, scientific, and other technical environments. Home; Preparing a Case Study.

Name the analysis techniques; About the Case: Describe the problem faced (1 . Teacher Assessment and Evaluation: The National Education Association’s Framework for Transforming Education Systems to Support Effective Teaching and Improve Student Learning.

At the core of any effective training program is correctly identifying what or who needs to be trained. Poorly conducted needs analyses can lead to training solutions that train: The wrong competencies; The wrong people; and The wrong learning methods.

Prepareing effective case analysis

Before a training needs analysis can begin, the.

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