Of the four powers in North Africa at the beginning of the 19th century, only Tunis and Morocco survived as independent states into the second half of the century to encounter the heavy pressures that Europe then brought to bear on the region for free trade and legal reform, measures originally leveled against the Ottoman Empire and Egypt. The Fundamental Pact guaranteed the equality before the law of all subjects—Muslim, Christian, and Jew—while the constitution provided for a consultative assembly and the administration of justice.
The organization of this article reflects this self-conceived Portuguese sense of imperial exceptionalism. While the reality of the notion has been challenged primarily by non-Portuguese writersit was an article of faith among Portuguese imperial policymakers and a potent propaganda tool of successive governments——before and even since the revolution and decolonization.
While there had been a Portuguese presence in Africa since the late 15th century in the form of coastal fortifications and Creole settlements, this could not properly be considered control from the metrople.
In this sense Africa came relatively late in the narrative of Portuguese state imperialism. While numerous works cited here deal with the earlier period of the Portuguese presence see also the related Oxford Bibliographies articles on Kongo and the Coastal States of West Central AfricaAngolaMozambiqueand Guinea Bissauthe principal focus is on the age of formalized control by the Portuguese state from the midth century.
The subsequent sections deal in turn with each of the component parts of Portuguese Africa: In the cases of first two——the larger continental territories——the entries are divided into sections dealing respectively with the generalities of the colonial experience and with nationalist resistance.
The final section covers the febrile process of decolonization and the transfers of power to the new regimes in Africa which followed the sudden collapse of the authoritarian state in Lisbon in April The now classic Boxer chronicles the history of Portuguese expansion from the 15th to the early 19th centuries in which Africa plays a significant role.
Finally, the social and cultural underpinning of Portuguese imperial doctrine——lusotropicalism——can be explored in the collection Freyreby its founding philosopher, the Brazilian anthropologist Gilberto Freyre.
Various historiographical debates on these and other areas take place online at the H-Luso-Africa list-serv which brings together scholars and observers of Portuguese-speaking Africa from across the world.
Ohio University Press, Covering the earlier phases of expansion as well as 19th and 20th century colonial rule, the balance of the collection favors Angola above the other territories. The Portuguese Seaborne Empire, — Carcanet in association with the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, A study of the political, cultural, and psychological roots and influences of the idea of lusotropicalism and its enduring place in the collective Portuguese consciousness throughout the 20th century and beyond.
The Portuguese and the Tropics:French colonial expansion was not limited to the New initiativeblog.com Senegal in West Africa, the French began to establish trading posts along the coast in In , the French East India Company was established to compete for trade in the east.
With the decay of the Ottoman Empire, in the French seized Algiers, thus beginning the colonization of French North Africa.
The goal of African nationalists throughout the continent was to take over the colonial state and replace European rule by new frameworks of renewed and independent African political life. The first phase of anti-European resistance in Africa lasted roughly from the late s to the time of World War I.
African Resistance to Colonial Rule Ch. 12 Sect. 2 Africa as a European Colony Most of Africa was a European Colony As the crop boom began, colonizers took advantage by forcing citizens to work in mines and plantations.
While African resistance to European colonialism is often thought of in terms of a white and black/European and African power struggle, this presumption underestimates the complex and strategic thinking that Africans commonly employed to address the challenges of European colonial rule.
African resistance to colonialism was the inevitable outcome of the clash of cultures that arose as European settlers competed for land with indigenous people and began to impose upon them sanctions intended to coerce the native population to colonial administrative systems.5/5(5).
The German colonial empire (German: Deutsches Kolonialreich) constituted the overseas colonies, dependencies and territories of Imperial initiativeblog.com chancellor of this time period was Otto von initiativeblog.com-lived attempts of colonization by individual German states had occurred in preceding centuries, but crucial colonial efforts only began in with the Scramble for Africa.