# Social polarisation thesis

The United States has always been a diverse but segregated country.

Edit Study of this effect has shown that after participating in a discussion group, members tend to advocate more extreme positions and call for riskier courses of action than individuals who did not participate in any such discussion.

This phenomenon was originally coined risky shift but was found to apply to more than risk, so the replacement term choice shift has been suggested. Group polarization has been used to explain the decision-making of a juryparticularly when considering punitive damages in a civil trial.

Studies have shown that after deliberating together, mock jury members often decided on punitive damage awards that were larger or smaller than the amount any individual juror had favoured prior to deliberation. The studies indicated that when the jurors favoured a relatively low award, discussion would lead to an even more lenient result, while if the jury was inclined to impose a stiff penalty, discussion would make it even harsher.

The discovery of the risky shift was considered surprising and counter-intuitive, especially since earlier work in the s and s by Allport and other researchers suggested that individuals made more extreme decisions than did groups, leading to the expectation that groups would make decisions that would conform to the average risk level of its members.

The seemingly counter-intuitive findings of Stoner led to a flurry of research around the risky shift, which was originally thought to be a special case exception to the standard decision-making practice.

By the late s, however, it had become clear that the risky shift was just one type of many attitudes that became more extreme in groups, leading Moscovici and Zavalloni to term the overall phenomenon "group polarization".

Thus began a decade-long period of examination of the applicability of group polarization to a number of fields, ranging from political attitudes to religion, in both lab and field settings.

Basic studies of group polarization tapered off, but research on the topic continued.

Group polarization was well-established, but remained non-obvious and puzzling because its mechanisms were not understood. Mechanisms of polarization Edit Almost as soon as the phenomenon of group polarization was discovered, a variety of hypotheses was suggested for the mechanisms for its action.

These explanations were gradually winnowed down and grouped together until two primary mechanisms remained, social comparison and influence. Social comparison approaches, sometimes called interpersonal comparison, were based on social psychological views of self-perception and the drive of individuals to appear socially desirable.

The second major mechanism is informational influence, which is also sometimes referred to as persuasive argument theoryor PAT. PAT holds that individual choices are determined by individuals weighing remembered pro and con arguments.

These arguments are then applied to possible choices, and the most positive is selected. As a mechanism for polarization, group discussion shifts the weight of evidence as each individual exposes their pro and con arguments, giving each other new arguments and increasing the stock of pro arguments in favor of the group tendency, and con arguments against the group tendency.

The persuasiveness of an argument depends on two factors — originality and its validity. According to PAT, a valid argument would hold more persuasive weight than a non-valid one. Originality has come to be understood in terms of the novelty of an argument.

In the s, significant arguments occurred over whether persuasive argumentation alone accounted for group polarization. Isenberg concluded that there was substantial evidence that both effects were operating simultaneously, and that PAT operated when social comparison did not, and vice-versa.

Isenberg did discover that PAT did seem to have a significantly stronger effect, however.A wide range of taught Masters degrees are offered across the Social Sciences Division which are suitable for those wanting to further a specialist interest (e.g.

for career development purposes) or for students seeking research training in preparation for doctoral study. Social polarisation is an expression associated with the segregation within a society that may emerge from income inequality, real-estate fluctuations, economic displacements etc.

and result in such differentiation that would consist of various social groups, from high-income to low-income (Moulaert, F.. The measurements presented in this thesis use proton-proton collision data from and recorded by the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider.

The data-taking period was successful and data with an integrated luminosity of ~$\text{fb}^{-1}$ has been collected. The knowledge of the efficiency of electron identification in the ATLAS detector is very important for ATLAS analyses. The polarisation of the media remains a nagging national question as evidenced by Information minister Jonathan Moyo’s call last week for the media to speak with “one voice.” His plea reminded me of Edward Herman and Noam Chomsky’s book, Manufacturing Consent, whose central thesis is that.

Ian Bremmer’s latest book correctly identifies the major symptoms of global legitimacy crises as manifested since the financial crash – inequality, political and social polarisation, mass. Urban Redevelopment and Social Polarisation in the City (URSPIC) is a European Commission, DG XII research project conducted in and coordinated by Frank Moulaert.

Project thesis The thesis of this research is that large scale urban redevelopment projects promote social exclusion and polarisation.

Social polarization - Wikipedia