The clinical description of diabetes mellitus

There are three major types of diabetes: All types of diabetes mellitus have something in common. Normally, your body breaks down the sugars and carbohydrates you eat into a special sugar called glucose. Glucose fuels the cells in your body.

The clinical description of diabetes mellitus

Definition Diabetes mellitus is a condition in which the pancreas no longer produces enough insulin or cells stop responding to the insulin that is produced, so that glucose in the blood cannot be absorbed into the cells of the body. Symptoms include frequent urination, lethargy, excessive thirst, and hunger.

The treatment includes changes in diet, oral medications, and in some cases, daily injections of insulin. Description Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that causes serious health complications including renal kidney failure, heart disease, strokeand blindness.

Approximately 17 million Americans have diabetes. Unfortunately, as many as one-half are unaware they have it. Background Every cell in the human body needs energy in order to function. Glucose from the digested food circulates in the blood as a ready energy source for any cells that need it.

The clinical description of diabetes mellitus

Insulin is a hormone or chemical produced by cells in the pancreas, an organ located behind the stomach. Insulin bonds to a receptor site on the outside of cell and acts like a key to open a doorway into the cell through which glucose can enter.

Some of the glucose can be converted to concentrated energy sources like glycogen or fatty acids and saved for later use. When The clinical description of diabetes mellitus is not enough insulin produced or when the doorway no longer recognizes the insulin key, glucose stays in the blood rather entering the cells.

The body will attempt to dilute the high level of glucose in the blood, a condition called hyperglycemia, by drawing water out of the cells and into the bloodstream in an effort to dilute the sugar and excrete it in the urine.

It is not unusual for people with undiagnosed diabetes to be constantly thirsty, drink large quantities of water, and urinate frequently as their bodies try to get rid of the extra glucose. This creates high levels of glucose in the urine.

At the same time that the body is trying to get rid of glucose from the blood, the cells are starving for glucose and sending signals to the body to eat more food, thus making patients extremely hungry.

To provide energy for the starving cells, the body also tries to convert fats and proteins to glucose. The breakdown of fats and proteins for energy causes acid compounds called ketones to form in the blood. Ketones also will be excreted in the urine.

As ketones build up in the blood, a condition called ketoacidosis can occur. This condition can be life threatening if left untreated, leading to coma and death. Types of diabetes mellitus Type I diabetes, sometimes called juvenile diabetes, begins most commonly in childhood or adolescence.

Clinical presentation and management of diabetes mellitus in pregnancy

In this form of diabetes, the body produces little or no insulin. It is characterized by a sudden onset and occurs more frequently in populations descended from Northern European countries Finland, Scotland, Scandinavia than in those from Southern European countries, the Middle East, or Asia.

In the United States, approximately three people in 1, develop Type I diabetes. This form also is called insulin-dependent diabetes because people who develop this type need to have daily injections of insulin.

Brittle diabetics are a subgroup of Type I where patients have frequent and rapid swings of blood sugar levels between hyperglycemia a condition where there is too much glucose or sugar in the blood and hypoglycemia a condition where there are abnormally low levels of glucose or sugar in the blood.

The clinical description of diabetes mellitus

These patients may require several injections of different types of insulin during the day to keep the blood sugar level within a fairly normal range. Sometimes called age-onset or adult-onset diabetes, this form of diabetes occurs most often in people who are overweight and who do not exercise.

People who have migrated to Western cultures from East India, Japan, and Australian Aboriginal cultures also are more likely to develop Type II diabetes than those who remain in their original countries. Type II is considered a milder form of diabetes because of its slow onset sometimes developing over the course of several years and because it usually can be controlled with diet and oral medication.

The consequences of uncontrolled and untreated Type II diabetes, however, are the just as serious as those for Type I. This form is also called noninsulin-dependent diabetes, a term that is somewhat misleading. Many people with Type II diabetes can control the condition with diet and oral medications, however, insulin injections are sometimes necessary if treatment with diet and oral medication is not working.

Another form of diabetes called gestational diabetes can develop during pregnancy and generally resolves after the baby is delivered. Children of women with gestational diabetes are more likely to be born prematurely, have hypoglycemia, or have severe jaundice at birth.

The condition usually is treated by diet, however, insulin injections may be required. These women who have diabetes during pregnancy are at higher risk for developing Type II diabetes within years.As described in Chapter , type 1 diabetes results from the destruction of the glucose-responsive, insulin-secreting β‎ cells of the pancreatic islets.

Its principal clinical features reflect significant insulin deficiency. In general, the β‎ cell damage is immune mediated and other clinical features occur related to other autoimmune processes. Type 1 diabetes is a chronic illness characterized by the body’s inability to produce insulin due to the autoimmune destruction of the beta cells in the pancreas.

Onset most often occurs in childhood, but the disease can also develop . A clinical approach for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus: an analysis using glycosylated hemoglobin levels. Meta-analysis Research Group on the Diagnosis of Diabetes Using Glycated Hemoglobin Levels. Type 1 diabetes, once known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin.

Insulin is a hormone needed to allow sugar (glucose) to enter cells to produce energy. 9 days ago · Effect of Type II Diabetes Mellitus With Neuropathy on the Clinical Use of Rocuronium The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators.

Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Gestational diabetes (GDM) is a significant clinical and public health burden, affecting over , pregnant women in the United States each year.

Without adequate treatment, women with GDM and their infants are at risk for substantial morbidity. Because of this, experts recommend treatment.

Clinical features of type 1 diabetes mellitus - Oxford Medicine