Prehistoric Malaysia The discovery of a skull which estimates say is around 40, years old on Niah Caves in Sarawak, has been identified as the earliest evidence for human settlement in Malaysian Borneo.
The paper will begin by defining the key terms such as and pre-colonial, and thereafter discuss the main purpose of the paper. According to Akinpeluthe term Philosophy of education can refer to different meanings depending on the situation.
According to the oxford English dictionary, Pre-colonial can be defined as being the period of time before colonization of a region or territory. In other words, it is the time before the coming of the Europeans to Africa.
Educational systems existed in African societies prior to the coming of the Europeans. Such education was for the induction of members of the society into activities and mode of thought that were considered worthwhile Fafunwa, African societies were noted for their rich cultural heritage which was pre served and transmitted from generation to generation through a system of traditional education.
This system is variously referred to as indigenous, pre-colonial or informal or tribal or community-based education in Africa Ocitti Even though there were in most cases no schools and professional teachers, there were certain centres for initiation and adult members of society served as teachers.
Such a traditional system of training lacked the modern classroom setting under the guidance of teachers. Indigenous knowledge systems, a tradition in which communities teach and learn from themselves through daily life rather than strict education, were also highly important and effective Omotoso, The apprenticeship perspective was of particular use to ancient Africans; by modelling the necessary skills for others, junior members of the community learned 1 to hunt, gather water, hold meetings, etc.
The overall purpose of this task-orientation type of education was to both learn specific skills and "produce an individual who is honest, respectable, skilled, and cooperative and conforms to the societal order of the day.
The philosophy of traditional education was very pragmatic and was designed to form a gate way to the life of the society.
It was based on the philosophy of functionalisrn and productivity. Although there were few theoretical abstractions, the main objective was to inculcate a sense of social responsibility of the community to individuals to become contributing members of the society.
One of the main features of traditional African education was the apprenticeship mode of learning whereby people learned under masters. Thus, traditional education is the process by which every society attempts to preserve and upgrade the accumulated knowledge, skills and attitudes in its cultural setting and heritage to foster continuously the wellbeing of mankind.
The content of the curriculum of traditional education was very comprehensive and based on the philosophy underlying the various job responsibilities in society. These ranged from mental broadening, physical fitness, moral uprightness, religious deference to good social adjustment and interaction.
Both children and adolescents took part in such activities as wrestling, dancing, drumming and acrobatic displays.
There was emphasis on mastery learning, which also features in contemporary educational process. Individual training included the learning of certain virtues such as honesty, respect for other peoples' property and rights, and the dignity of manual labour.
Hard work, productivity, self-reliance and collective orientation towards the maintenance of the existing social order were emphasised. Walter identified the following features of indigenous African education which are: He maintained that there was no separation of education and productive activity or any division between manual and intellectual education.
In respect to vocation, children were taught farming, fishing, weaving, cooking, hunting, carving, knitting, building of houses, mat-making and forging local farm implements Fafunwa, Different societal issues constituted political traditional education. For example, young ones were taught rules and regulations governing family, village and the individual, relationship between members of society and villages.
Intellectual training included the study of local history, legends, poetry, reasoning, riddles and proverbs. Those who excelled in these areas were highly revered in the society as their expertise was of immense benefit to their society.
The main method of teaching in the traditional education system was learning by doing and storytelling which was employed effectively in teaching local history to the young ones Fafunwa, The process of inculcating in-depth knowledge and understanding of the ethics and principles of traditional medicine, carpentry, sorcery, or cultism was restricted to certain families and training for these was done through apprenticeship system.
Practical objects were handled by the learners during the course of their training.
Assessment of learners' performances was on a continuous basis an idea that is being revisited in contemporary educational system today. A practical test relevant to the learners' experiences and level of development was the final examination.
It is important to note that most of the features of African traditional education system are prominent in the contemporary educational system. For example, people who studied certain trades or vocations spent a specified period of time and at graduation through a ceremony were given either tools or materials to start their own trades.
It seems that the idea of specified period of training, awarding of degrees or diplomas or certificate and convocation ceremony is derived from the traditional system of education.
How to meet the needs of African society in current parlance was a major concern of traditional African education Ocitti Education was functional and relevant to social life or realities of the community.Strength and Weakness Essay Personal Strengths and Weaknesses Throughout my life, my strengths and weaknesses tend to gain more clarity, as I grew older.
When I was younger, I did not focus too much on this part of myself. INDIGENOUS AFRICAN EDUCATION The principle aim of this paper is discuss the assertion that “African children in pre-colonial period learnt what they lived”.
The paper will be discussed in the light of what is known about indigenous African education. However, to discuss this topic thoroughly, a. If you are a teacher searching for educational material, please visit PBS LearningMedia for a wide range of free digital resources spanning preschool through 12th grade.
The Strength And Weakness Of Education In The Colonial Era Strength and Weaknesses Michael Bartlett Gen/ 8/8/ James Bailey Strength and Weaknesses Every individual has personal strengths and weaknesses that show his or her life in a positive or negative way. The onset of the colonial period in the 19th century marked the beginning of the end for traditional African education.
European forces, missionaries, and colonists all came ready and willing to change existing traditions to meet their own needs and ambitions (Walter, ).
CULTURE AND EDUCATION IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF AFRICA By ISAAC N MAZONDE Post-colonial education has contiuned the links with the west. The post colonial colonial to the post-colonial period.
Due to paucity of more current or up to-date literature, the post colonial period will be considered only up to the mid s.