Train your writing radar to keep a mental lookout for although, and follow these simple rules:
Hear the Lecture Complex Sentence Defined A complex sentence combines a simple sentence often called an independent clause with a subordinate clause.
Subordinate Clause Types Complex sentences come in many varieties based on the types of subordinate clauses that are available in English. In the Longman Student Grammar and other studies of English grammarsubordinate clauses are divided into two major types: Let's go through these one by one.
The "finite" just means that there a full verb phrase--and that the clause has some type of "time" meaning. Finite clauses include 1 adverbial clauses, 2 noun clauses, 3 wh-clauses, and 4 relative clauses.
In each of the following examples, the verb phrase is given in bold type to focus your attention on that feature of the clause. Finite Clauses Adverbial Clause 1. Because humans are not monkeys, we must be careful about extrapolating from animal studies to human behavior.
We imagine how we appear to those around us. For example, we may think that others see us as witty or dull.
Cantonese the language of Canton, which differs in sound from Mandarin roughly the way French does from Spanish is the second most common Chinese dialect. Non-Finite Clauses Non-finite clauses are built around verbs that do not have tense or modality--verbs that are not sentence verb phrases.
These are clauses with 1 infinitives and 2 participles both -ed and -ing. Non-Finite Clauses Infinitive Clause 1. He wondered why he had forsaken physics to study human culture in the first place. Present Participle Clause 2. Entering the world of the Yanomamo, the anthropologist experienced culture shock.
Past Participle Clause 3. Confused by the differences between his culture and theirs, he wanted to flee and return home. This terminology seems to be a reasonable response to a teaching reality: Moreover, sentences with infinitives don' t appear to be very "complex": I like to study grammar looks like a simple SVO with the infinitive as the direct object.
When teaching students how to write complex sentences, teachers are generally more concerned about the difficulties of getting the right verb tense and all of it in finite clauses; they don't want to complicate things by calling sentences with infinitives complex sentences.
Because one of the audiences for textbooks is the teachers who will use it, in a grammar textbook that I published titled Applied English Grammar, I decided to go with the tradition of calling infinitives and participles phrases. I'm not sure I would make the same decision today, but I also do not think that it matters a great deal.
In one setting, I can talk about infinitive clauses and in another setting infinitive phrases. I just advise that you be consistent in your usage--and that you follow whatever system is used in the textbook that you and the students are working with.
Participles as Adjectives vs. Participles as Adverbials Consider these sets of made-up examples: The noise made by the car suggested an engine problem.
Tired from the trip, we went to bed right after dinner. The tall women standing in the corner are from Brazil. Standing in the corner, the tall women watched the other people in the classroom closely. They can be analyzed as reduced relative clauses: The noise that was made by the car suggested an engine problem.
The tall women who are standing in the corner are from Brazil. While the other clauses have the same types of words and the same organization, they have different functions--and are analyzed as coming from different sourses.
Because we were tired from the trip, we went to bed right after dinner. While they were standing in the corner, the tall women watched the other people in the classroom closely. Here's are authentic sentences from my sociology source. They're from a chapter opener that tells the story of an anthropologist's encounters with another culture.
Anthropologist Napolean Chagnon was nearing the end of a three-day journey to the home territory of the Yanomamo, one of the most technologically primitive societies remaining on earth.Sentence variety can be introduced to the beginning of sentences by starting a sentence with an adverb, starting a sentence with a prepositional phrase, or by inverting the subject and verb.
Combine ideas, using modifiers, relative clauses, or appositives, to achieve sentence variety. If you start a sentence with an although idea, end the idea with a comma, and follow it with a real sentence. Suppose you wrote “Although the hurricane was headed our way.” This is an extra idea that can’t end with a period.
A complex sentence must have a principal clause and one or more subordinate clauses. The subordinate clause may be a noun clause, an adjective clause or an adverb clause. We can form a complex sentence by combining two simple sentences using a subordinating conjunction like when, as, since, till, where, if, though, unless, that, lest, weather, whereas etc.
Improving Your Sentence Structure COMPLEX: A complex sentence has one main (or independent) clause and one or more dependent (or subordinate) clauses. NOTE: When the conjunctive adverb is within the clause rather than at the beginning, place it between commas.
Complex Sentence - Even though he suffered from arthritis, If the subordinating conjunction comes at the beginning of the sentence If the subordinating conjunction comes at the beginning of the sentence – add a comma at the end of the dependent clause.
Functions: Act as an adverb, this clause talk about time (when), place (where), condition (if) – all condition clause is the complex sentence.
>>>while While many countries try to cut down on emissions, US Government withdraws from Paris Climate Agreement.